1. Absorption Coefficient and Penetration Depth
Penetration depth - Wikipedia
Penetration depth is a measure of how deep light or any electromagnetic radiation can penetrate into a material. When electromagnetic radiation is incident on the surface of a material, it may be partly reflected from that surface and there will be a field containing energy transmitted into the material. This electromagnetic field interacts with the atoms and electrons inside the material. Depending on the nature of the material, the electromagnetic field might travel very far into the material, or may die out very quickly. For a given material, penetration depth will generally be a function of wavelength.
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Light that is transmitted through the semiconductor material is attenuated by a significant amount as it passes through. The rate of absorption of light is proportional to the intensity the flux of photons for a given wavelength; in other words, as light passes through the material the flux of photons is diminished by the fact that some are absorbed on the way through. Therefore, the amount of photons that reach a certain point in the semiconductor depends on the wavelength of the photon and the distance from the surface. The following equation models the exponential decay of monochromatic one-color or approximately single-wavelength light as it travels through a semiconductor 1 :.
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